A current area of information, the ambition to form an interactive company, to optimize the exchange between politicians and citizens, has become a political and social priority. The digital medium is heavily used to reconcile the political class society.
In this sense, the new trend of many elected officials is to engage citizens, through their awareness and suggestion, to improve the quality of different services offered to a city, a community or region. The e-citizenship is formed by the effective use of IT communication and collaboration (social networks, community platform,…).
The challenge of promoting digital citizenship is primarily political and social and technological. Socially, this is to create a coherent fiscal framework for the civil society, even at the individual level, to be part of decision-making as it also strengthens any civil initiative to general interest, which is manifested in the development of a collective intelligence able to provide effective solutions, at the social basis for complex problems of general order. This social dynamism enhances the effectiveness of the political decision because of the constant interaction between policy makers and background information, as it helps soften the structure of policy making and make more flexible institutional structure and to move towards a more participatory political democracy.
The e- citizenship is reinforced with the development of innovation in the information industry including the development of new technologies of information and communication permanently. The world has become increasingly interconnected. Indeed, borders and barriers are broken and distances are reduced.
Under these conditions the concept of social life has evolved into an approximation logic and reconciliation , The Internet allows people to communicate, to share, to gather even to mobilize. But digital citizenship is not just a result of changes in information technology but also it can be a cause, as the incentive for innovation in this field is reinforced by the desire to put in place new technological media to consolidate the system of e- citizenship.
The internet is a vehicle for renewal of citizenship. In a digital society, a model citizen is considered an individual of a particular nationality, which actively participates in the life of his city and who exercises its rights and fulfills her duties, and which expresses and acts on the canvas.
Since the launch of e-citizenship by Estonia, several countries have adopted this system. In France, the networks and e- citizen platforms are multiplying. Their goal is to develop a participatory process of citizens in decision making. Users can ask questions and provide input on public topics that interest them. Obviously, these 2.0 platforms have not only an interactive role, but they also enable citizens to benefit from a set of services. For this purpose, this device allows to combine the individual interest and the public interest.
Foreigners can also receive e-citizenship, besides those who request it will receive an e-resident card that looks like a classic identification card. This card allows them to access multiple online services. This status should strengthen exchanges between entrepreneurs, workers and students from outside with local actors.
The e-citizenship is also useful in the health sector. It allows buying drugs through a digital prescription in a pharmacy. This digital identity is protected by the state.
The sensitization potential of the Internet is very strong. Some events invade the net dazzling speed and give way to many reactions that lead to forms of mobilization around the world, organized and simultaneously.
In France, it is the sad events at the beginning of 2015, after the attacks of Charlie Hebdo, which caused event sharing pics and assembly on the Internet. The feedback on social networks is not waiting for the hashtag « Je suis Charlie », «I am Charlie» is used several times by all persons affected by this event.
The mobilizing power that characterizes social networks suggests that the use of social media to raise awareness of people on major issues of public life within the framework of general interest. It is here that the Federation citizenship on the net has its important role.
In 2016, the Internet is an essential tool for engaging citizens in the development of their community and their society. Initiatives are developed to promote e-citizenship and encourage individuals to participate in the company’s change from their digital media.
The tools that promote e-citizenship, for example: the wiki, forums, and social networks crowfunding.
Today, governments and political parties have understood the importance of internet and especially social networks to engage communities and strengthen membership.
In this regard, the ongoing debates plan to integrate digital education in schools; the challenge therefore lies partly in the education of users and especially that of younger Internet use and wisely, and secondly, in the deepening of the interaction between politics and public opinion, increasingly connected.
FEDILA Akila, étudiante en Master 2 Gestion et Droit de l’économie numérique parcours Commerce Electronique à l’Université de Strasbourg